terimalah hambu mu ini Ya Allah Hu Akbar

terimalah hambu mu ini Ya Allah Hu Akbar
aku nak jadi hamba Allah yang bertaqwa kepada Nya

Saturday, January 15, 2011

carl rogers

Carl Rogers menyatakan bahawa setiap individu itu mempunyai cara belajar yang berbeza dengan individu yang lain. Oleh itu, strategi dan pendekatan dalam proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran hendaklah dirancang dan disusun mengikut kehendak dan perkembangan emosi pelajar itu. Beliau juga menjelaskan bahawa setiap individu mempunyai potensi dan keinginan untuk mencapai kecemerlangan kendiri. Maka, guru hendaklah menjaga kendiri pelajar dan memberi bimbingan supaya potensi mereka dapat diperkembangkan ke tahap optimum.

Teori pembelajaran Carl Rogers menyarankan beberapa ciri yang
utama, antaranya:

i. Kefahaman tingkah laku individu hanya dapat diperolehi melalui komunikasi.
ii. Setiap individu mempunyai kecenderungan dan hasrat sendiri untuk mencapai
kesempurnaan kendiri.
iii. Setiap individu membentuk konsep kendiri yang unik melalui sistem nilai dan
kepercayaan diri yang berbeza dengan individu yang lain.
iv. Tingkah laku yang ditonjolkan oleh individu adalah selaras dengan konsep
kendiri dan kepercayaannya.
v. Pengalaman setiap individu adalah fenomena- logikal, iaitu pengalamannya
hanya dialami dan difahami oleh individu itu sendiri.

ciri pertama teori carl rogers
  1. individu mempunyai pendapat dan pemikiran serta juga mengawal destinasi hidup
  2. beliau juga berpendapat melalui proses kaunseling menggalakkan individu bergerak bebas dan boleh mengarah kendiri ke arah yang positif.
Roger’s theory is a clinical one, based on years of experience dealing with his clients.  He has this in common with Freud, for example.  Also in common with Freud is that his is a particularly rich and mature theory -- well thought-out and logically tight, with broad application.
Not in common with Freud, however, is the fact that Rogers sees people as basically good or healthy -- or at very least, not bad or ill.  In other words, he sees mental health as the normal progression of life, and he sees mental illness, criminality, and other human problems, as distortions of that natural tendency.  Also not in common with Freud is the fact that Rogers’ theory is a relatively simple one.
Also not in common with Freud is that Rogers’ theory is particularly simple -- elegant even!  The entire theory is built on a single “force of life” he calls the actualizing tendency.  It can be defined as the built-in motivation present in every life-form to develop its potentials to the fullest extent possible.  We’re not just talking about survival:  Rogers believes that all creatures strive to make the very best of their existence.  If they fail to do so, it is not for a lack of desire.
Rogers captures with this single great need or motive all the other motives that other theorists talk about.  He asks us, why do we want air and water and food?  Why do we seek safety, love, and a sense of competence?  Why, indeed, do we seek to discover new medicines, invent new power sources, or create new works of art?  Because, he answers, it is in our nature as living things to do the very best we can!
Keep in mind that, unlike Maslow’s use of the term, Rogers applies it to all living creatures.  Some of his earliest examples, in fact, include seaweed and mushrooms!  Think about it:  Doesn’t it sometimes amaze you the way weeds will grow through the sidewalk, or saplings crack boulders, or animals survive desert conditions or the frozen north?
He also applied the idea to ecosystems, saying that an ecosystem such as a forest, with all its complexity, has a much greater actualization potential than a simple ecosystem such as a corn field.  If one bug were to become extinct in a forest, there are likely to be other creatures that will adapt to fill the gap;  On the other hand, one bout of “corn blight” or some such disaster, and you have a dust bowl.  The same for us as individuals:  If we live as we should, we will become increasingly complex, like the forest, and thereby remain flexible in the face of life’s little -- and big -- disasters.
People, however, in the course of actualizing their potentials, created society and culture.  In and of itself, that’s not a problem:  We are a social creature, it is our nature.  But when we created culture, it developed a life of its own.  Rather than remaining close to other aspects of our natures, culture can become a force in its own right.  And even if, in the long run, a culture that interferes with our actualization dies out, we, in all likelihood, will die with it.
Don’t misunderstand:  Culture and society are not intrinsically evil!  It’s more along the lines of the birds of paradise found in Papua-New Guinea.  The colorful and dramatic plumage of the males apparently distract predators from females and the young.  Natural selection has led these birds towards more and more elaborate tail feathers, until in some species the male can no longer get off the ground.  At that point, being colorful doesn’t do the male -- or the species -- much good!  In the same way, our elaborate societies, complex cultures, incredible technologies, for all that they have helped us to survive and prosper, may at the same time serve to harm us, and possibly even destroy us.
Rogers tells us that organisms know what is good for them.  Evolution has provided us with the senses, the tastes, the discriminations we need:  When we hunger, we find food -- not just any food, but food that tastes good.  Food that tastes bad is likely to be spoiled, rotten, unhealthy. That what good and bad tastes are -- our evolutionary lessons made clear!  This is called organismic valuing.
Among the many things that we instinctively value is positive regard, Rogers umbrella term for things like love, affection, attention, nurturance, and so on.  It is clear that babies need love and attention. In fact, it may well be that they die without it.  They certainly fail to thrive -- i.e. become all they can be.
Another thing -- perhaps peculiarly human -- that we value is positive self-regard, that is, self-esteem, self-worth, a positive self-image.  We achieve this positive self-regard by experiencing the positive regard others show us over our years of growing up.  Without this self-regard, we feel small and helpless, and again we fail to become all that we can be!
Like Maslow, Rogers believes that, if left to their own devices, animals will tend to eat and drink things that are good for them, and consume them in balanced proportions.  Babies, too, seem to want and like what they need.  Somewhere along the line, however, we have created an environment for ourselves that is significantly different from the one in which we evolved.  In this new environment are such things as refined sugar, flour, butter, chocolate, and so on, that our ancestors in Africa never knew.  These things have flavors that appeal to our organismic valuing -- yet do not serve our actualization well.  Over millions of years, we may evolve to find brocolli more satisfying than cheesecake -- but by then, it’ll be way too late for you and me.
Our society also leads us astray with conditions of worth.  As we grow up, our parents, teachers, peers, the media, and others, only give us what we need when we show we are “worthy,” rather than just because we need it. We get a drink when we finish our class, we get something sweet when we finish our vegetables, and most importantly, we get love and affection if and only if we “behave!”
Getting positive regard on “on condition” Rogers calls conditional positive regard.  Because we do indeed need positive regard, these conditions are very powerful, and we bend ourselves into a shape determined, not by our organismic valuing or our actualizing tendency, but by a society that may or may not truly have our best interests at heart.  A “good little boy or girl” may not be a healthy or happy boy or girl!..


  • ini merujuk cara individu bertingkah laku dan menyesuaikan diri dengan situasi adalah konsisten dengan caraindividu mempersepsi dirinya dengan situasi dipersekitaran.
  • fokus kpd penekanan kecenderungan kesempurnaan individu ke arah perkembangan dan kematangan fizikal, keperluan untuk membina perhubungan.
  • Rogers juga mengabaikan aspek – aspek tidak sadar dalam tingkah laku manusia karena ia lebih melihat pada pengalaman masa sekarang dan masa depan, bukannya pada masa lampau yang biasanya penuh dengan pengalaman traumatik yang menyebabkan seseorang mengalami suatu penyakit psikologis.

  1. Teori Belajar Humanistik

 Pengertian humanistik yang beragam membuat batasan-batasan aplikasinya dalam dunia pendidikan mengundang berbagai macam arti pula. Sehingga perlu adanya satu pengertian yang disepakati mengenai kata humanistik dala pendidikan. Dalam artikel “What is Humanistik Education?”, Krischenbaum menyatakan bahwa sekolah, kelas, atau guru dapat dikatakan bersifat humanistik dalam beberapa kriteria. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa ada beberapa tipe pendekatan humanistik dalam pendidikan. Ide mengenai pendekatan-pendekatan ini terangkum dalam psikologi humanistik.
  • bila boleh berdikari manusia tidak perlu dikawal oleh orang lain .
  • membantu klien mencapai matlamat yang ingin dicapai.
  • kemampuan kaunselor memahami perasaan klien 
  • dapat refleksi perasaan klien
    • menyediakan keadaan yang membenarkan
    • menolong klien menjadi matang
    • menjadi teraaputik(kondusif, selamat, tidak terancam)
    • klien bertingkahlaku yang lebih sosial dan matang
      • perhubungan antara kaunselor dan klien paling penting.
      • ciri teori penglibatan yang aktif.
      • klien perlu bercakap.
      • berlaku dalam keadaan mesra.
  • aplikasi teori
    • banyak diaplikasikan dalam latihan,
    • contoh kebimbingan 
    • alkoholik
    • kesukaran intrapersonal
    • murung
    • kecelaruan personaliti
      • tiada panduan bagaimana mewujudkan hubungan dengan klien untuk membawa impak perubahan/ tiada teknik khusus,
      • kejayaan bergantung kepada ciri2x klien yang cerdas, bermotivasi untuk dan terhad kpd klien

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