terimalah hambu mu ini Ya Allah Hu Akbar

terimalah hambu mu ini Ya Allah Hu Akbar
aku nak jadi hamba Allah yang bertaqwa kepada Nya

Tuesday, June 30, 2009

bro joe

seorang kontraktor di raub lebih di kenali dengan panggilan tukey

unutk membeli benih pokok sila hubungi saya di 0139733409

anda boleh menghubungi saya di talian tersebut.. ini juga dipanggil jualan lelong hanya kepada yang benar-benar berminat sahaja.

jika anda memerlukan benih pokok-pokok buah-buahan tempatan sila hubungi saya

saya ada menyediakan anak pokok buah-buahan tempatan dengan harga serendah rm3 - rm5 sahaja.. kebanyakkan anak pokok tersebut telah berusia 1 tahun 2tahun dan kurang daripada itu..

school of thoughts

behaviorist.....Constructivist(navist)....... Funtional
B.F> skinner - verbal behavior ( known for his experiments with animal behavior but he also gained recognitioning for his contributions to education through teaching machines and programmed learning (Skinner 1968).

Operant conditioning- refers to conditioning in which organism (human being) emits a response, or operant ( a sentence or utterance ) without necessary observable stimuli.

eg. child says "want milk" - parent gives milk- operant is reinforced- repeated-becomes conditioned.

to dificult- to abstractlast semester.

FIRST language acquisition and language learning

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Wikipedia: English as a Foreign or Second Language
Home > Library > Miscellaneous > Wikipedia
See also: Language education and Second language acquisition
"ESL" redirects here. For other uses, see ESL (disambiguation).
An immigrant makes an American breakfast, aided by instructional materials from the YMCA, 1918.

ESL (English as a second language), ESOL (English for speakers of other languages), and EFL (English as a foreign language) all refer to the use or study of English by speakers with a different native language. The precise usage, including the different use of the terms ESL and ESOL in different countries, is described below. These terms are most commonly used in relation to teaching and learning English, but they may also be used in relation to demographic information.

ELT (English language teaching) is a widely-used teacher-centred term, as in the English language teaching divisions of large publishing houses, ELT training, etc. The abbreviations TESL (teaching English as a second language), TESOL (teaching English to speakers of other languages) and TEFL (teaching English as a foreign language) are also used.

Other terms used in this field include EAL (English as an additional language), ESD (English as a second dialect), EIL (English as an international language), ELF (English as a lingua franca), ESP (English for special purposes, or English for Specific Purposes), EAP (English for academic purposes). Some terms that refer to those who are learning English are ELL (English language learner), LEP (limited English proficiency) and CLD (culturally and linguistically diverse).

* 1 Terminology and types
o 1.1 English outside English-speaking countries
o 1.2 English within English-speaking countries
o 1.3 Umbrella terms
o 1.4 Which variety to teach
o 1.5 Systems of simplified English
* 2 Difficulties for learners
o 2.1 Pronunciation
o 2.2 Grammar
o 2.3 Vocabulary
o 2.4 Differences between spoken and written English
o 2.5 Varieties of English
* 3 Exams for learners
o 3.1 The Common European Framework
* 4 Qualifications for teachers
o 4.1 Non-native speakers
o 4.2 United States qualifications
o 4.3 British qualifications
* 5 Professional associations and unions
* 6 Acronyms and abbreviations
o 6.1 Types of English
o 6.2 Other abbreviations
* 7 References and notes
* 8 See also
o 8.1 Language terminology
o 8.2 General language teaching and learning
o 8.3 English language teaching and learning
o 8.4 Contemporary English
o 8.5 Other
* 9 External links

Terminology and types

The many acronyms used in the field of English teaching and learning may be confusing. English is a language with great reach and influence; it is taught all over the world under many different circumstances. In English-speaking countries, English language teaching has essentially evolved in two broad directions: instruction for people who intend to live in an English-speaking country and for those who don't. These divisions have grown firmer as the instructors of these two "industries" have used different terminology, followed distinct training qualifications, formed separate professional associations, and so on. Crucially, these two arms have very different funding structures, public in the former and private in the latter, and to some extent this influences the way schools are established and classes are held. Matters are further complicated by the fact that the United States and the United Kingdom, both major engines of the language, describe these categories in different terms: as many eloquent users of the language have observed, "England and America are two countries divided by a common language." (Attributed to Winston Churchill, George Bernard Shaw, and Oscar Wilde.) The following technical definitions may therefore have their currency contested.

English outside English-speaking countries

EFL, English as a foreign language, indicates the use of English in a non–English-speaking region. Study can occur either in the student's home country, as part of the normal school curriculum or otherwise, or, for the more privileged minority, in an anglophone country that they visit as a sort of educational tourist, particularly immediately before or after graduating from university. TEFL is the teaching of English as a foreign language; note that this sort of instruction can take place in any country, English-speaking or not. Typically, EFL is learned either to pass exams as a necessary part of one's education, or for career progression while working for an organisation or business with an international focus. EFL may be part of the state school curriculum in countries where English has no special status (what linguist Braj Kachru calls the "expanding circle countries"); it may also be supplemented by lessons paid for privately. Teachers of EFL generally assume that students are literate in their mother tongue. The Chinese EFL Journal[1] and Iranian EFL Journal[2] are examples of international journals dedicated to specifics of English language learning within countries where English is used as a foreign language.

English within English-speaking countries

The other broad grouping is the use of English within the Anglosphere. In what theorist Braj Kachru calls "the inner circle", i.e. countries such as the United Kingdom and the United States, this use of English is generally by refugees, immigrants and their children. It also includes the use of English in "outer circle" countries, often former British colonies, where English is an official language even if it is not spoken as a mother tongue by the majority of the population.

In the US, Canada and Australia, this use of English is called ESL (English as a second language). This term has been criticized on the grounds that many learners already speak more than one language. A counter-argument says that the word "a" in the phrase "a second language" means there is no presumption that English is the second acquired language (see also Second language). TESL is the teaching of English as a second language.

In the UK, Ireland and New Zealand, the term ESL has been replaced by ESOL (English for speakers of other languages). In these countries TESOL (teaching English to speakers of other languages) is normally used to refer to teaching English only to this group. In the UK, the term EAL (English as an additional language), rather than ESOL, is usually used when talking about primary and secondary schools, in order to clarify English is not the students first language, but their second or third.[3]

Other acronyms were created to describe the person rather than the language to be learned. The term LEP (Limited English proficiency) was created in 1975 by the Lau Remedies following a decision of the US Supreme Court. ELL (English Language Learner), used by United States governments and school systems, was created by Charlene Rivera of the Center for Equity and Excellence in Education in an effort to label learners positively, rather than ascribing a deficiency to them. LOTE (Languages other than English) is a parallel term used in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand.

Typically, this sort of English (called ESL in the United States, Canada, and Australia, ESOL in the United Kingdom, Ireland and New Zealand) is learned to function in the new host country, e.g. within the school system (if a child), to find and hold down a job (if an adult), to perform the necessities of daily life. The teaching of it does not presuppose literacy in the mother tongue. It is usually paid for by the host government to help newcomers settle into their adopted country, sometimes as part of an explicit citizenship program. It is technically possible for ESL to be taught not in the host country, but in, for example, a refugee camp, as part of a pre-departure program sponsored by the government soon to receive new potential citizens. In practice, however, this is extremely rare.

Particularly in Canada and Australia, the term ESD (English as a second dialect) is used alongside ESL, usually in reference to programs for Canadian First Nations people or indigenous Australians, respectively.[4] It refers to the use of standard English, which may need to be explicitly taught, by speakers of a creole or non-standard variety. It is often grouped with ESL as ESL/ESD.

Umbrella terms

All these ways of denoting the teaching of English can be bundled together into an umbrella term. Unfortunately, all the English teachers in the world cannot agree on just one. The term TESOL (teaching English to speakers of other languages) is used in American English to include both TEFL and TESL. British English uses ELT (English language teaching), because TESOL has a different, more specific meaning; see above.

Which variety to teach

It is worth noting that ESL and EFL programs also differ in the variety of English which is taught; "English" is a term that can refer to various dialects, including British English, American English, and many others. Obviously, those studying English in order to fit into their new country will learn the variety spoken there. However, for those who do not intend to change countries, the question arises of which sort of English to learn. If they are going abroad for a short time to study English, they need to choose which country. For those staying at home, the choice may be made for them in that private language schools or the state school system may only offer one model. Students studying EFL in Hong Kong, for example, are more likely to learn British English, whereas students in the Philippines are more likely to learn American English.

For this reason, many teachers now emphasize teaching English as an international language (EIL), also known as English as a ­lingua franca (ELF). Linguists are charting the development of international English, a term with contradictory and confusing meanings, one of which refers to a decontextualised variant of the language, independent of the culture and associated references of any particular country, useful when, for example, a Saudi does business with someone from China, or Albania.

Systems of simplified English

For international communication several models of "simplified English" have been suggested, among them:

* Basic English, developed by Charles Kay Ogden (and later also I. A. Richards) in the 1930s; a recent revival has been initiated by Bill Templer[5]
* Threshold Level English, developed by van Ek and Alexander[6]
* Globish, developed by Jean-Paul Nerrière
* Basic Global English, developed by Joachim Grzega[7]
* Nuclear English, proposed by Randolph Quirk and Gabriele Stein but never fully developed.[8]

Difficulties for learners

Language teaching practice often assumes that most of the difficulties that learners face in the study of English are a consequence of the degree to which their native language differs from English (a contrastive analysis approach). A native speaker of Chinese, for example, may face many more difficulties than a native speaker of German, because German is closely related to English, whereas Chinese is not. This may be true for anyone of any mother tongue (also called first language, normally abbreviated L1) setting out to learn any other language (called a target language, second language or L2). See also second language acquisition (SLA) for mixed evidence from linguistic research.

Language learners often produce errors of syntax and pronunciation thought to result from the influence of their L1, such as mapping its grammatical patterns inappropriately onto the L2, pronouncing certain sounds incorrectly or with difficulty, and confusing items of vocabulary known as false friends. This is known as L1 transfer or "language interference". However, these transfer effects are typically stronger for beginners' language production, and SLA research has highlighted many errors which cannot be attributed to the L1, as they are attested in learners of many language backgrounds (for example, failure to apply 3rd person present singular -s to verbs, as in 'he make').

While English is no more complex than other languages, it has several features which may create difficulties for learners. Conversely, because such a large number of people are studying it, products have been developed to help them do so, such as the monolingual learner's dictionary, which is written with a restricted defining vocabulary.

It is important to remember that learning a second language involves much more than learning the words and the sounds of a language. Communication breakdowns occur not only due to the more commonly understood syntax and pronunciation difficulties but because when we learn a language we also learn a culture. What is perceived as right, normal and correct in one language and culture does not always "translate" into a second language...even when the vocabulary is understood. Communication breakdowns may occur as a result of cultural assumptions regarding age, forms of address, authority and respect, touching, eye contact and other body language, greetings, invitations, and punctuality to name just a few.


* Consonant phonemes

English does not have more individual consonant sounds than most languages. However, the interdentals, /θ/ and /ð/ (the sounds written with th), which are common in English (thin, thing, etc.; and the, this, that, etc.) are relatively rare in other languages, even others in the Germanic family (e.g., English thousand = German tausend), and these sounds are missing even in some English dialects. Some learners substitute a [t] or [d] sound, while others shift to [s] or [z], [f] or [v] and even [ts] or [dz]).

Speakers of Japanese, Korean, Chinese and Thai may have difficulty distinguishing [r] and [l]. Speakers of Xiang Chinese may have a similar difficulty distinguishing [n] and [l]. The distinction between [b] and [v] can cause difficulty for native speakers of Spanish, Japanese and Korean.

* Vowel phonemes

The precise number of distinct vowel sounds depends on the variety of English: for example, Received Pronunciation has twelve monophthongs (single or "pure" vowels), eight diphthongs (double vowels) and two triphthongs (triple vowels); whereas General American has thirteen monophthongs and three diphthongs. Many learners, such as speakers of Spanish, Japanese or Arabic, have fewer vowels, or only pure ones, in their mother tongue and so may have problems both with hearing and with pronouncing these distinctions.

* Syllable structure

In its syllable structure, English allows for a cluster of up to three consonants before the vowel and four after it (e.g., straw, desks, glimpsed). The syllable structure causes problems for speakers of many other languages. Japanese, for example, broadly alternates consonant and vowel sounds so learners from Japan often try to force vowels in between the consonants (e.g., desks /desks/ becomes "desukusu" or milk shake /mɪlk ʃeɪk/ becomes "mirukushēku").

Learners from languages where all words end in vowels sometimes tend to make all English words end in vowels, thus make /meɪk/ can come out as [meɪkə]. The learner's task is further complicated by the fact that native speakers may drop consonants in the more complex blends (e.g., [mʌns] instead of [mʌnθs] for months).

* Unstressed vowels - Native English speakers frequently replace almost any vowel in an unstressed syllable with an unstressed vowel, often schwa. For example, from has a distinctly pronounced short 'o' sound when it is stressed (e.g., Where are you from?), but when it is unstressed, the short 'o' reduces to a schwa (e.g., I'm from London.). In some cases, unstressed vowels may disappear altogether, in words such as chocolate (which has four syllables in Spanish, but only two as pronounced by Americans: "choc-lit".)

Stress in English more strongly determines vowel quality than it does in most other world languages (although there are notable exceptions such as Russian). For example, in some varieties the syllables an, en, in, on and un are pronounced as homophones, that is, exactly alike. Native speakers can usually distinguish an able, enable, and unable because of their position in a sentence, but this is more difficult for inexperienced English speakers. Moreover, learners tend to overpronounce these unstressed vowels, giving their speech an unnatural rhythm.

* Stress timing - English tends to be a stress-timed language - this means that stressed syllables are roughly equidistant in time, no matter how many syllables come in between. Although some other languages, e.g., German and Russian, are also stress-timed, most of the world's other major languages are syllable-timed, with each syllable coming at an equal time after the previous one. Learners from these languages often have a staccato rhythm when speaking English that is disconcerting to a native speaker.

"Stress for emphasis" - students' own languages may not use stress for emphasis as English does.
"Stress for contrast" - stressing the right word or expression. This may not come easily to some nationalities.
"Emphatic apologies" - the normally unstressed auxiliary is stressed (I really am very sorry)
In English there are quite a number of words - about fifty - that have two different pronunciations, depending on whether they are stressed. They are "grammatical words": pronouns, prepositions, auxiliary verbs and conjunctions. Most students tend to overuse the strong form, which is pronounced with the written vowel.

* Connected speech

Phonological processes such as assimilation, elision and epenthesis together with indistinct word boundaries can confuse learners when listening to natural spoken English, as well as making their speech sound too formal if they do not use them. For example, in RP eight beetles and three ants /eɪt biːtəlz ənd θriː ænts/ becomes [eɪtbiːtl̩znθɹiːjæns].

See also: Accent reduction


* Tenses - English has a relatively large number of tenses with some quite subtle differences, such as the difference between the simple past "I ate" and the present perfect "I have eaten." Progressive and perfect progressive forms add complexity. (See English verbs.)
* Functions of auxiliaries - Learners of English tend to find it difficult to manipulate the various ways in which English uses the first auxiliary verb of a tense. These include negation (e.g. He hasn't been drinking.), inversion with the subject to form a question (e.g. Has he been drinking?), short answers (e.g. Yes, he has.) and tag questions (has he?). A further complication is that the dummy auxiliary verb do /does /did is added to fulfil these functions in the simple present and simple past, but not for the verb to be.
* Modal verbs - English also has a significant number of modal auxiliary verbs which each have a number of uses. For example, the opposite of "You must be here at 8" (obligation) is usually "You don't have to be here at 8" (lack of obligation, choice), while "must" in "You must not drink the water" (prohibition) has a different meaning from "must" in "You must not be a native speaker" (deduction). This complexity takes considerable work for most English language learners to master.
* Idiomatic usage - English is reputed to have a relatively high degree of idiomatic usage. For example, the use of different main verb forms in such apparently parallel constructions as "try to learn", "help learn", and "avoid learning" pose difficulty for learners. Another example is the idiomatic distinction between "make" and "do": "make a mistake", not "do a mistake"; and "do a favor", not "make a favor".
* Articles - English has an appreciable number of articles, including the definite article the and the indefinite article a, an. At times English nouns can or indeed must be used without an article; this is called the zero article. Some of the differences between definite, indefinite and zero article are fairly easy to learn, but others are not, particularly since a learner's native language may lack articles or use them in different ways than English does. Although the information conveyed by articles is rarely essential for communication, English uses them frequently (several times in the average sentence), so that they require some effort from the learner.


* Phrasal verbs - Phrasal verbs in English can cause difficulties for many learners because they have several meanings and different syntactic patterns. There are also a number of phrasal verb differences between American and British English.
* Word derivation - Word derivation in English requires a lot of rote learning. For example, an adjective can be negated by using the prefix un- (e.g. unable), in- (e.g. inappropriate), dis- (e.g. dishonest), or a- (e.g. amoral), or through the use of one of a myriad of related but rarer prefixes, all modified versions of the first four.
* Size of lexicon - The history of English has resulted in a very large vocabulary, essentially one stream from Old English and one from the Norman infusion of Latin-derived terms. (Schmitt & Marsden claim that English has one of the largest vocabularies of any known language.) This inevitably requires more work for a learner to master the language.

Differences between spoken and written English

As with most languages, written language tends to use a more formal register than spoken language. The acquisition of literacy takes significant effort in English.

* Spelling - Because of the many changes in pronunciation which have occurred since a written standard developed, the retention of many historical idiosyncrasies in spelling, and the large influx of foreign words (mainly from Danish, Norman French, Classical Latin and Greek) with different and overlapping spelling patterns,[9] English spelling is difficult even for native speakers to master. This difficulty is shown in such activities as spelling bees that generally require the memorization of words. English speakers may also rely on computer tools such as spell checkers more than speakers of other languages, as the users of the utility may have forgotten, or never learned, the correct spelling of a word. The generalizations that exist are quite complex and there are many exceptions leading to a considerable amount of rote learning. The spelling system causes problems in both directions - a learner may know a word by sound but not be able to write it correctly (or indeed find it in a dictionary), or they may see a word written but not know how to pronounce it or mislearn the pronunciation. However, despite the variety of spelling patterns in English, there are dozens of rules that are 75% or more reliable.[10]
For further discussion of English spelling patterns and rules, see Phonics.

Varieties of English

* There are thriving communities of English native speakers in countries all over the world, and this historical diaspora has led to some noticeable differences in pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar in different countries, as well as those variations which exist between different regions, and across the social strata, within the same country. Even within the British Isles, there are significant regional language differences, differences of (i) pronunciation/accent, (ii) vocabulary, and even (iii) grammar/dialect, when the local dialect differs from that of another region or from the grammar of 'received English'.
* According to Ethnologue, the world holds 6912 living languages[11]; most exist within only a small geographic area, and even most of the top 100 are limited to a small number of countries or even a single state. Some of the more well-known languages are to some degree managed by a specific organisation that determines the most prestigious form of the language, e.g. French language and the Academie de la langue française or Spanish language and the Real Academia Española. Since many students of English study it to enable them to communicate internationally, the lack of a uniform international standard for the language poses some barriers to meeting that goal; see international English.
* Teaching English therefore involves not only helping the student to use the form of English most suitable for his purposes, but also exposure to other forms of English (e.g. regional forms/ cultural styles) so that the student will be able to discern 'meaning' even when the words/grammar/pronunciation may be quite different to the form of English with which he has become more familiar.

Exams for learners
See also: Category:English language tests

Learners of English are often keen to get accreditation and a number of exams are known internationally:[12]

* Trinity College London ESOL offers Integrated Skills in English (ISE), series of 5 exams, which assesses Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening accepted by academic institutions in the UK. They also offer Graded Examinations in Spoken English (GESE), series of 12 exams, which assesses Speaking and Listening and ESOL Skills for Life and ESOL for Work exams in the UK only.
* University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations offers a suite of five examinations including First Certificate in English (FCE), Certificate in Advanced English (CAE) and Certificate of Proficiency in English (CPE)
* IELTS (International English Language Testing System), accepted by academic institutions in the UK, Australia, New Zealand and Canada, and by many in the USA.
* City and Guilds International ESOL and International Spoken ESOL on demand examinations available at six levels: Preliminary, Access, Achiever, Communicator, Expert and Mastery
* London Tests of English from Pearson Language Tests, a series of six exams each mapped to a level from the CEFR
* Secondary Level English Proficiency test
* TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language), an Educational Testing Service product, developed and used primarily for academic institutions in the USA, and now widely accepted in tertiary institutions in Canada, New Zealand, Australia, the UK, and Ireland. The current test is Internet based, and is known as the TOEFL iBT. Used as a proxy for English for Academic Purposes.
* TOEIC (Test of English for International Communication), an Educational Testing Service product for Business English
* TSE - Test of Spoken English
* TWE - Test of Written English

Many countries also have their own exams. ESOL learners in England, Wales and Northern Ireland usually take the national Skills for Life qualifications, which are offered by several exam boards. EFL learners in China may take the College English Test. In Greece English students may take the PALSO (PanHellenic Association of Language School Owners) exams.

The Common European Framework

Between 1998 and 2000, the Council of Europe's language policy division developed its Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. The aim of this framework was to have a common system for foreign language testing and certification, to cover all European languages and countries.

The Common European Framework (CEF) divides language learners into three levels:

* A. Basic User
* B. Independent User
* C. Proficient User

Each of these levels is divided into two sections, resulting in a total of six levels for testing (A1, A2, B1, etc).

This table compares ELT exams according to the CEF levels:
CEF Level ALTE Level NQF Level London Tests of English TCL ESOL GESE TCL ESOL ISE UBELT exam Cambridge ESOL IELTS Cambridge ESOL BULATS Cambridge ESOL BEC Cambridge ESOL General Cambridge ESOL YLE City and Guilds
C2 Level 5 Level 3 Level 5 Grade 12 IV 4.0-5.0 7.0+ 90-100 n/a CPE n/a Mastery
C1 Level 4 Level 2 Level 4 Grade 10,11 III 3.0-3.5 6.0-6.5 75-89 Higher CAE n/a Expert
B2 Level 3 Level 1 Level 3 Grade 7,8,9 II 2.0-2.5 5.0-5.5 60-74 Vantage FCE n/a Communicator
B1 Level 2 Entry 3 Level 2 Grade 5,6 I 1.5 4.0-4.5 40-59 Preliminary PET n/a Achiever
A2 Level 1 Entry 2 Level 1 Grades 3,4 0 1.0 n/a 20-39 n/a KET Flyers Access
A1 Breakthrough Entry 1 Level A1 Grade 2 n/a <1.0 n/a 0-19 n/a n/a Movers Preliminary

Qualifications for teachers

Non-native speakers

Most people who teach English are in fact not native speakers of that language. They are state school teachers in countries around the world, and as such they hold the relevant teaching qualification of their country, usually with a specialism in teaching English. For example, teachers in Hong Kong hold the Language Proficiency Assessment for Teachers. Those who work in private language schools may, from commercial pressures, have the same qualifications as native speakers (see below). Widespread problems exist of minimal qualifications and poor quality providers of training, and as the industry professionalises, it is trying to self-regulate to eliminate these.[13]

United States qualifications

Most U.S. instructors at community colleges and universities qualify by taking an MA in TESOL. This degree also qualifies them to teach in most EFL contexts. In some areas of the United States, nearly all elementary school teachers are involved in teaching ELLs (English Language Learners, that is, children who come to school speaking a home language other than English.) The qualifications for these classroom teachers vary from state to state but always include a state-issued teaching certificate for public instruction. This state licensing requires substantial practical experience as well as course work. The MA in TESOL typically includes both graduate work in English as one of the classical liberal arts (literature, linguistics, media studies) with a theoretical component in language pedagogy. Admission to the MA in TESOL typically requires at least a bachelor's degree with a minor in English or linguistics, or, sometimes, a degree in a foreign language instead.

It is important to note that the issuance of a teaching certificate or license is not automatic following completion of degree requirements. All teachers must complete a battery of exams (typically the Praxis subject and method exams or similar, state-sponsored exams) as well as supervised instruction as student teachers. Often, ESL certification can be obtained through extra college coursework. ESL certifications are usually only valid when paired with an already existing teaching certificate. Certification requirements for ESL teachers vary greatly from state to state; out-of-state teaching certificates are recognized if the two states have a reciprocity agreement.

British qualifications

Common, respected qualifications for teachers within the United Kingdom's sphere of influence include certificates and diplomas issued by Trinity College London ESOL and University of Cambridge ESOL (henceforth Trinity and Cambridge).

A certificate course is usually undertaken before starting to teach. This is sufficient for most EFL jobs (see TEFL for an extended discussion of travel-teaching) and for some ESOL ones. CertTESOL (Certificate in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages), issued by Trinity, and CELTA (Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults), issued by Cambridge, are the most widely taken and accepted qualifications for new teacher trainees. Courses are offered in the UK and in many countries around the world. It is usually taught full-time over a one-month period or part-time over a period up to a year.

Teachers with two or more years of teaching experience who want to stay in the profession and advance their career prospects (including school management and teacher training) can take a diploma course. Trinity offers the Trinity Licentiate Diploma in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (DipTESOL) and Cambridge offers the Diploma in English Language Teaching to Adults (DELTA). These diplomas are considered to be equivalent and are both accredited at level 7 of the revised National Qualifications Framework. Some teachers who stay in the profession go on to do an MA in a relevant discipline such as applied linguistics or ELT. Many UK master's degrees require considerable experience in the field before a candidate is accepted onto the course.

The above qualifications are well-respected within the UK EFL sector, including private language schools and higher education language provision. However, in England and Wales, in order to meet the government's criteria for being a qualified teacher of ESOL in the Learning and Skills Sector (i.e. post-compulsory or further education), teachers need to have the Certificate in Further Education Teaching Stage 3 at level 5 (of the revised NQF) and the Certificate for ESOL Subject Specialists at level 4. Recognised qualifications which confer one or both of these include a Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) in ESOL, the CELTA module 2 and City & Guilds 9488. Teachers of any subject within the British state sector are normally expected to hold a PGCE, and may choose to specialise in ELT.

Professional associations and unions

* TESOL Inc. is Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, a professional organization based in the United States. In addition, there are many large state-wide and regional affiliates, see below.
* IATEFL is the International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language, a professional organization based in the United Kingdom.
* Professional organisations for teachers of English exist at national levels. Many contain phrases in their title such as the Japan Association for Language Teaching (JALT) or the Society of Pakistan English Language Teachers (SPELT). Some of these organisations may be bigger in structure (supra-national, such as TESOL Arabia in the Gulf states), or smaller (limited to one city, state, or province, such as CATESOL in California). Some are affiliated to TESOL or IATEFL.
* NATECLA is the National Association for Teaching English and other Community Languages to Adults, which focuses on teaching ESOL in the United Kingdom.
* National Union of General Workers is a Japanese union which includes English teachers.
* University and College Union is a British trade union which includes lecturers of ELT.

Acronyms and abbreviations

See also: Language education for information on general language teaching acronyms and abbreviations.

Types of English

* BE - Business English
* EAL - English as an additional language. The use of this term is restricted to certain countries. See the discussion in Terminology and types.
* EAP - English for academic purposes
* EFL - English as a foreign language. English for use in a non-English-speaking region, by someone whose first language is not English. See the discussion in Terminology and types.
* EIL - English as an international language (see main article at International English)
* ELF - English as a lingua franca
* ELL - English language learner. The use of this term is restricted to certain countries. See the discussion in Terminology and types.
* ELT - English language teaching. The use of this term is restricted to certain countries. See the discussion in Terminology and types.
* ESL - English as a second language. English for use in an English-speaking region, by someone whose first language is not English. The use of this term is restricted to certain countries. See the discussion in Terminology and types.
* ESOL - English for speakers of other languages. This term is used differently in different countries. See the discussion in Terminology and types.
* ESP - English for Specific Purposes, or English for Special Purposes (e.g. technical English, scientific English, English for medical professionals, English for waiters).
* EST - English for science and technology (e.g. technical English, scientific English).
* TEFL - Teaching English as a foreign language. This link is to a page about a subset of TEFL, namely travel-teaching. More generally, see the discussion in Terminology and types.
* TESL - Teaching English as a second language. The use of this term is restricted to certain countries. See the discussion in Terminology and types.
* TESOL - Teaching English to speakers of other languages, or Teaching English as a second or other language. See the discussion in Terminology and types.
* TYLE - Teaching Young Learners English. Note that "Young Learners" can mean under 18, or much younger.

Other abbreviations

* BULATS - Business Language Testing Services, a computer-based test of business English, produced by CambridgeEsol. The test also exists for French, German, and Spanish.
* CELTA - Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults
* DELTA - Diploma in English Language Teaching to Adults
* IELTS - International English Language Testing System
* LTE - London Tests of English by Pearson Language Tests
* TOEFL - Test of English as a Foreign Language
* TOEIC - Test of English for International Communication
* UCLES - University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate, an exam board

References and notes

1. ^ http://www.chinese-EFL-journal.com
2. ^ http://www.iranian-efl-journal.com
3. ^ The Basic Skills Agency [1]
4. ^ Saskatchewan Learning [2]
5. ^ Cf. Ogden, Charles K. (1934), The System of Basic English, New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co., and Templer, Bill (2005), “Towards a People’s English: Back to BASIC in EIL”, Humanising Language Teaching September 2005.
6. ^ Cf. van Ek, J.A. / Alexander, L.G. (1980), Threshold Level English, Oxford: Pergamon.
7. ^ Cf. Grzega, Joachim (2005), "Reflection on Concepts of English for Europe: British English, American English, Euro-English, Global English", Journal for EuroLinguistiX 2: 44-64, and Grzega, Joachim (2005), “Towards Global English via Basic Global English (BGE): Socioeconomic and Pedagogic Ideas for a European and Global Language (with Didactic Examples for Native Speakers of German), Journal for EuroLinguistiX 2: 65-164, and the press releases accessible via the Basic Global English website.
8. ^ Cf. Quirk, Randolph (1981), “International Communication and the Concept of Nuclear English”, in: Smith, Larry E. (ed.), English for Cross-Cultural Communication, 151-165, London: Macmillan, and Stein, Gabriele (1979), “Nuclear English: Reflections on the Structure of Its Vocabulary”, Poetica (Tokyo) 10: 64-76.
9. ^ McGuinness, Diane. (2004). Early Reading Instruction Cambridge: MIT Press 41.
10. ^ Abbott, M. (2000). Identifying reliable generalizations for spelling words: The importance of multilevel analysis. The Elementary School Journal 101(2), 233-245.
11. ^ "Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition", ISBN 1 55671 159 X
12. ^ Sources for this are found at the university websites. Given that there are thousands of tertiary institutions that accept one or more of these for entrance requirements, they simply can not be footnoted individually here
13. ^ "TESOL Certificates. Teaching or Deceiving the EFL/ESL Teaching Profession" by Tom Davidson, March 2008 volume 2 TESOL Law Journal

See also

Language terminology

* Foreign language
* Second language
* Standard Marine Communication Phrases

General language teaching and learning

* Applied linguistics
* Contrastive rhetoric
* Language education
* Second language acquisition

English language teaching and learning

* Non-native pronunciations of English
* Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL), for an extended discussion of travel-teaching
* English Language Institute an educational facility
* Structured English Immersion, a framework for teaching English language learners in public schools

Contemporary English

* American and British English differences
* English language
* English studies
* International English


* Crazy English, an idiosyncratic methodology
* List of countries by English-speaking population
* Ruth Hayman - ESL pioneer
* RoPeCast - an ESL podcast project

v • d • e
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Education Portal

External links
Note. Please see Wikipedia:External links for guidelines regarding appropriate external links.

* International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language
* NCELA - National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition
* Open Directory listing of ELLT-related websites
* TESOL International


* Asian EFL Journal
* English as an International Language Journal
* TESL-EJ: Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language

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Sunday, June 28, 2009

The ASSURE Model

The ASSURE Model

(From Instructional Media and Technologies for Learning by Heinich, Molenda, Russell, Smaldino, 1999)

Analyze learners
State objectives
Select instructional methods, media, and materials
Utilize media and materials
Require learner participation
Evaluate and revise Photobucket

The ASSURE model is an ISD (Instructional Systems Design) process that was modified to be used by teachers in the regular classroom The ISD process is one in which teachers and trainers can use to design and develop the most appropriate learning environment for their students. You can use this process in writing your lesson plans and in improving teaching and learning.

The ASSURE model incorporates Robert Gagne's events of instruction to assure effective use of media in instruction.

Analyze learners

Before you can begin, you must know your target audience (your students). You need to write down the following information about your students:

General characteristics - grade, age, ethnic group, sex, mental, emotional, physical, or social problems, socioeconomic level, and so on.
Specific entry competencies - prior knowledge, skills, and attitudes.
Learning styles - verbal, logical, visual, musical, structured, and so on.

State objectives

Once you know your students, you can begin writing the objectives of your lesson. Objectives are the learning outcomes, that is, what will the student get out of the lesson?

The ABCD's of writing objectives are:

Audience (who are your students?)
Behavior to be demonstrated
Conditions under which the behavior will be observed
Degree to which the learned skills are to be mastered.

Example: Fifth grade social studies students (Audience) will be able to name at least 90% (Degree) of the state capitols (Behavior) when given a list of states (Condition).

Select instructional methods, media, and materials

Once you know your students and have a clear idea of what they should get out of the lesson, then you are ready to select the:

Instructional method that you feel is most appropriate to meet the objectives for these particular students.
Media that would be best suited to work with your instructional method, the objectives, and your students. Media could be text, still images, video, audio, and computer multimedia.
Materials that provide your students with the help they need in mastering the objectives. Materials might be purchased and used as is or they might need some modifications. You can also design and create your own materials for the students to use. Materials would be specific software programs, music, videotapes, images, but would also be equipment, i.e., overhead projector, computer, printer, scanner, TV, laserdisk player, VCR, and so on.
Utilize media and materials
Now it's time to do your lesson and use the media and materials that you have selected. You should always preview the materials before using them in a class and you should also use the equipment in advance to be sure it works and you know how to use it. If you use electronic equipment, don't assume that everything will work. Be sure to have a plan B. Hardware and software are created by humans. Humans make mistakes and so software has mistakes in it. Hardware can malfunction. Don't get discouraged if technology lets you down. Make sure that your instructional materials are suitable and working the best you can and then use it in the classroom.

Require learner participation

Remember, students learn best when they are actively involved in the learning. The passive learner has more trouble learning whatever we try to pour into his/her brain. Whatever your teaching strategy, you can incorporate questions and answers, discussions, group work, hands-on activities, and other ways of getting students actively involved in the learning of the content. It is up to you, the teacher, to make sure that all your students have opportunities to participate in the learning activities in the unit plan. Avoid lecturing for an entire hour. Listen to your students and allow them to become aware of the content. Allow them to learn as opposed to trying to "teach" them.

Evaluate and revise

This last stage is often neglected but it is the most important one. Anyone can develop a lesson and deliver it, but really good teachers must reflect upon the lesson, the stated objectives, the instructional strategy, the instructional materials, and the assessment and determine if these elements of the lesson were effective or if one or more of them need to be changed the next time the lesson is done. Sometimes a lesson may seem like it would be great, at least on paper. But then when you actually teach the lesson with a specific set of students, you might discover there were several things that did not seem to work. Your expectations might be too high or too low. The materials used might not have been appropriate for the grade level or the material might not be very motivating. The instructional strategy might not have got students interesting in participation or the strategy might have been difficult for you to manage. The assessment you used might have shown that students didn't learn what you tested for. This might mean that you did not accurately test for the stated objectives, the method of assessment needs to be revised, or the lesson did not permit enough time for the students to master the objectives.

You are not a bad teacher if a lesson does not work. You are a bad teacher if you don't reflect upon your lessons and work on revising elements of the lesson until your students become successful learners.
Berikut merupakan senarai buku yang telah kami hasilkan sehingga kini. Kebanyakan buku telah diterbitkan oleh Venton Publishing (M) Sdn. Bhd. Selain dari itu, terdapat juga buku yang diterbitkan oleh syarikat penerbitan lain seprti PTS Publications & Distributors dan sebagainya.

Klik pada tajuk buku untuk mendapatkan maklumat lebih lanjut.

Sistem Komputer & Aplikasinya
Pengenalan kepada Multimedia
Pembangunan Perisian Multimedia : Satu Pendekatan Sistematik
Multimedia dalam Pendidikan
Multimedia: Konsep dan Praktis (BARU)
Animasi: Dari Helaian Kertas ke Skrin Digital (BARU)
Teknologi dan Rekabentuk Grafik Digital (BARU)
Teknologi Audio Digital: Teori dan Praktis (BARU)
Teknologi Video Digital: Teori dan Praktis (BARU)

Grafik Digital : Asas Penggunaan Adobe Photoshop 6 (Siri 1)
Menguasai Dunia Grafik Berkomputer : Adobe Photoshop 6 (Siri 2)
Macromedia Flash 5:Konsep & Asas Penggunaan (Siri 1)
Macromedia Flash 5:Grafik dan Animasi Digital (Siri 2)
Macromedia Flash 5:Interaktiviti Menggunakan ActionScript (Siri 3)
Macromedia Authorware Attain 5 : Pengenalan (Siri 1)
Macromedia Authorware Attain 5 : Fungsi & Pembolehubah Dalaman (Siri 2)
Macromedia Authorware 6:Asas Pembangunan Aplikasi Multimedia Interaktif (Siri 1)
Macromedia Authorware 6:Pengenalan kepada Fungsi & Pembolehubah (Siri 2)
Macromedia Authorware 6:Projek Interaktif Aras Tinggi (Siri 3)
Macromedia Dreamweaver MX : Asas Pembangunan Halaman Web (Siri 1)
Macromedia Dreamweaver MX : Pembangunan Web Dinamik & Interaktif (Siri 2)
Adobe Photoshop 7 : Konsep dan Asas Penggunaan (Siri 1)
Adobe Photoshop 7 : Fotografi Digital, Web dan Multimedia (Siri 2)
Visual Basic .NET : Pengenalan kepada Bahasa Pengaturcaraan
Multimedia Menerusi Macromedia Flash MX 2004

Menguasai Perisian Pemproses Perkataan : Microsoft Word XP
Menguasai Perisian Hamparan Elektronik : Microsoft Excel XP
Menguasai Perisian Persembahan Elektronik : Microsoft Power Point XP
Menguasai Perisian Pangkalan Data : Microsoft Access XP (Siri 1)
Menguasai Perisian Pangkalan Data: Microsoft Access (Siri 2)
Menguasai Perisian Pembangunan Halaman Web : Microsoft Front Page XP
Microsoft Office XP : Word, Excel, Access & Power Point
nt Page XP

Pengenalan Kepada Analisis Data Berkomputer : SPSS 10.0 for Windows:
Analisis Data Berkomputer : SPSS 11.5

Soalan Lazim

Hakcipta ©2004 Jamalludin Harun & Zaidatun Tasir (UTM)

Berikut merupakan senarai buku yang telah kami hasilkan sehingga kini. Kebanyakan buku telah diterbitkan oleh Venton Publishing (M) Sdn. Bhd. Selain dari itu, terdapat juga buku yang diterbitkan oleh syarikat penerbitan lain seprti PTS Publications & Distributors dan sebagainya.

Klik pada tajuk buku untuk mendapatkan maklumat lebih lanjut.

Sistem Komputer & Aplikasinya
Pengenalan kepada Multimedia
Pembangunan Perisian Multimedia : Satu Pendekatan Sistematik
Multimedia dalam Pendidikan
Multimedia: Konsep dan Praktis (BARU)
Animasi: Dari Helaian Kertas ke Skrin Digital (BARU)
Teknologi dan Rekabentuk Grafik Digital (BARU)
Teknologi Audio Digital: Teori dan Praktis (BARU)
Teknologi Video Digital: Teori dan Praktis (BARU)

Grafik Digital : Asas Penggunaan Adobe Photoshop 6 (Siri 1)
Menguasai Dunia Grafik Berkomputer : Adobe Photoshop 6 (Siri 2)
Macromedia Flash 5:Konsep & Asas Penggunaan (Siri 1)
Macromedia Flash 5:Grafik dan Animasi Digital (Siri 2)
Macromedia Flash 5:Interaktiviti Menggunakan ActionScript (Siri 3)
Macromedia Authorware Attain 5 : Pengenalan (Siri 1)
Macromedia Authorware Attain 5 : Fungsi & Pembolehubah Dalaman (Siri 2)
Macromedia Authorware 6:Asas Pembangunan Aplikasi Multimedia Interaktif (Siri 1)
Macromedia Authorware 6:Pengenalan kepada Fungsi & Pembolehubah (Siri 2)
Macromedia Authorware 6:Projek Interaktif Aras Tinggi (Siri 3)
Macromedia Dreamweaver MX : Asas Pembangunan Halaman Web (Siri 1)
Macromedia Dreamweaver MX : Pembangunan Web Dinamik & Interaktif (Siri 2)
Adobe Photoshop 7 : Konsep dan Asas Penggunaan (Siri 1)
Adobe Photoshop 7 : Fotografi Digital, Web dan Multimedia (Siri 2)
Visual Basic .NET : Pengenalan kepada Bahasa Pengaturcaraan
Multimedia Menerusi Macromedia Flash MX 2004

Menguasai Perisian Pemproses Perkataan : Microsoft Word XP
Menguasai Perisian Hamparan Elektronik : Microsoft Excel XP
Menguasai Perisian Persembahan Elektronik : Microsoft Power Point XP
Menguasai Perisian Pangkalan Data : Microsoft Access XP (Siri 1)
Menguasai Perisian Pangkalan Data: Microsoft Access (Siri 2)
Menguasai Perisian Pembangunan Halaman Web : Microsoft Front Page XP
Microsoft Office XP : Word, Excel, Access & Power Point
nt Page XP

Pengenalan Kepada Analisis Data Berkomputer : SPSS 10.0 for Windows:
Analisis Data Berkomputer : SPSS 11.5

Soalan Lazim

Hakcipta ©2004 Jamalludin Harun & Zaidatun Tasir (UTM)

Berikut merupakan senarai buku yang telah kami hasilkan sehingga kini. Kebanyakan buku telah diterbitkan oleh Venton Publishing (M) Sdn. Bhd. Selain dari itu, terdapat juga buku yang diterbitkan oleh syarikat penerbitan lain seprti PTS Publications & Distributors dan sebagainya.

Klik pada tajuk buku untuk mendapatkan maklumat lebih lanjut.

Sistem Komputer & Aplikasinya
Pengenalan kepada Multimedia
Pembangunan Perisian Multimedia : Satu Pendekatan Sistematik
Multimedia dalam Pendidikan
Multimedia: Konsep dan Praktis (BARU)
Animasi: Dari Helaian Kertas ke Skrin Digital (BARU)
Teknologi dan Rekabentuk Grafik Digital (BARU)
Teknologi Audio Digital: Teori dan Praktis (BARU)
Teknologi Video Digital: Teori dan Praktis (BARU)

Grafik Digital : Asas Penggunaan Adobe Photoshop 6 (Siri 1)
Menguasai Dunia Grafik Berkomputer : Adobe Photoshop 6 (Siri 2)
Macromedia Flash 5:Konsep & Asas Penggunaan (Siri 1)
Macromedia Flash 5:Grafik dan Animasi Digital (Siri 2)
Macromedia Flash 5:Interaktiviti Menggunakan ActionScript (Siri 3)
Macromedia Authorware Attain 5 : Pengenalan (Siri 1)
Macromedia Authorware Attain 5 : Fungsi & Pembolehubah Dalaman (Siri 2)
Macromedia Authorware 6:Asas Pembangunan Aplikasi Multimedia Interaktif (Siri 1)
Macromedia Authorware 6:Pengenalan kepada Fungsi & Pembolehubah (Siri 2)
Macromedia Authorware 6:Projek Interaktif Aras Tinggi (Siri 3)
Macromedia Dreamweaver MX : Asas Pembangunan Halaman Web (Siri 1)
Macromedia Dreamweaver MX : Pembangunan Web Dinamik & Interaktif (Siri 2)
Adobe Photoshop 7 : Konsep dan Asas Penggunaan (Siri 1)
Adobe Photoshop 7 : Fotografi Digital, Web dan Multimedia (Siri 2)
Visual Basic .NET : Pengenalan kepada Bahasa Pengaturcaraan
Multimedia Menerusi Macromedia Flash MX 2004

Menguasai Perisian Pemproses Perkataan : Microsoft Word XP
Menguasai Perisian Hamparan Elektronik : Microsoft Excel XP
Menguasai Perisian Persembahan Elektronik : Microsoft Power Point XP
Menguasai Perisian Pangkalan Data : Microsoft Access XP (Siri 1)
Menguasai Perisian Pangkalan Data: Microsoft Access (Siri 2)
Menguasai Perisian Pembangunan Halaman Web : Microsoft Front Page XP
Microsoft Office XP : Word, Excel, Access & Power Point
nt Page XP

Pengenalan Kepada Analisis Data Berkomputer : SPSS 10.0 for Windows:
Analisis Data Berkomputer : SPSS 11.5

Soalan Lazim

Hakcipta ©2004 Jamalludin Harun & Zaidatun Tasir (UTM)


Isi Kandungan Buku

Proses Pembangunan Perisian Multimedia Sepintas Lalu

1.0 Pengenalan
1.1 Pendekatan Sistematik dalam Pembangunan Perisian Multimedia
1.2 Fasa-fasa dalam Proses Pembangunan Perisian Multimedia
1.2.1 Fasa 1 : Perancangan dan Menganalisis Keperluan Perisian
1.2.2 Fasa 2 : Rekabentuk Perisian
1.2.3 Fasa 3 : Pembangunan Perisian
1.2.4 Fasa 4 : Fasa Pengujian dan Penilaian

Model Rekabentuk Instruksi Bersistem dalam Pembangunan Perisian Multimedia

2.0 Pengenalan
2.1 Model Rekabentuk Instruksi Bersistem dalam Pembangunan Perisian Multimedia Secara Khusus
2.2 Model ADDIE
2.3 Model ASSURE
2.4 Model Hanaffin & Peck
2.5 Model Dick & Carey
2.6 Model Robert Glasea
2.7 Model "Waterfall"

Pengurusan Projek dalam Pembangunan Perisian Multimedia

3.0 Pengenalan
3.1 Konsep Utama Dalam Pengurusan Projek Multimedia
3.2 Fasa Kerja Dalam Pengurusan Projek
3.2.1 Fasa Pertama : Definasi dan Perancangan
3.2.2 Fasa Kedua : Perlaksanaan Projek
3.2.3 Fasa Ketiga : Fasa Penilaian
3.3 Elemen-elemen Utama dalam Pengurusan Projek Multimedia
3.3.1 Pasukan Pengurusan Projek
3.3.2 Model Pengurusan Projek
3.3.3 Dokumentasi Pengurusan Projek
3.3.4 Teknik atau Kaedah Pengurusan Projek
3.3.5 Pemantauan dalam Pengurusan Projek
3.4 Isu-isu dalam Pengurusan Projek
3.4.1 Cabaran Utama dalam Kaedah Pengurusan Projek
3.4.2 Masalah dalam Pengurusan Projek
3.4.3. Langkah-langkah Mengatasi Masalah

Pembentukan Kumpulan Kerja dalam Projek Pembangunan Perisian Multimedia

4.0 Pengenalan
4.1 Kumpulan Pengurusan
4.1.1 Penerbit / Pengurus Projek
4.1.2 Pengarah Kreatif
4.1.3 Pengarah Seni
4.1.4 Pengarah Teknikal
4.1.5 Pengurus Ujian
4.2 Kumpulan Perekabentuk
4.2.1 Pakar Isi Kandungan
4.2.2 Perekabentuk Instruksi
4.2.3 Penulis Skrip
4.3 Kumpulan Teknikal
4.3.1 Editor
4.3.2 Artis Komputer Grafik / Pereka Visual
4.3.3 Pakar Audio
4.3.4 Pakar Video
4.3.5 Pelukis Animasi 2 Dimensi (2D)/Animator 2D
4.3.6 Pelukis Animasi 3 Dimensi (3D)/Animator 3D
4.3.7 Pengaturcara

Pengendalian Proses Pembangunan serta Pengurusan Perbelanjaan dalam Pembangunan
Perisian Multimedia

5.0 Pengenalan
5.1 Pengendalian Proses Pembangunan
5.1.1 Syarikat Bukan Multimedia
5.1.2 Pembekal Perkhidmatan Multimedia
5.2 Pengurusan Perbelanjaan
5.2.1 Proses Kerja dalam Pengurusan Perbelanjaan
5.2.2 Menetapkan Output, Proses, Masa dan Kos Projek Pembangunan
5.2.3 Menetapkan Semula Output, Proses, Masa dan Kos Projek Pembangunan (Sekiranya Perlu)
5.3 Sumber Kewangan dan Pembiayaan Projek
5.3.1 Pembangunan Projek Multimedia Secara Usahasama
5.3.2 Pembangunan Projek Multimedia Secara Kontrak Kerjasama
5.3.3 Pembangunan Projek Multimedia dengan Geran Pembiayaan

Penghasilan dan Pengumpulan Sumber Media

6.0 Pengenalan
6.1 Elemen-elemen Multimedia
6.1.1 Teks
6.1.2 Grafik
6.1.3 Audio
6.1.4 Video
6.1.5 Animasi
6.2 Penghasilan dan Pengumpulan Sumber Media
6.2.1 Menghasilkan Sendiri
6.2.2 Menterjemahkan dari Sumber Sedia Ada
6.2.3 Memperolehi dari Kandungan yang Sedia Ada
6.2.4 Menggunakan Bahan dari Domain Awam
6.2.5 Memperolehi dari Agensi Perdagangan
6.3 Strategi Penggunaan Elemen Multimedia yang Berkesan

Pengaturcaraan dan Pengarangan dalam Pembangunan Perisian Multimedia

7.0 Pengenalan
7.1 Bahasa Pengaturcaraan dan Bahasa Pengarangan Sepintas Lalu
7.2 Bahasa Pengaturcaraan
7.2.1 Pengenalan kepada Bahasa Pengaturcaraan
7.2.2 Bahasa Pengaturcaraan Aras Rendah
7.2.3 Bahasa Pengaturcaraan Aras Tinggi
7.2.4 Bahasa Pengaturcaraan Visual
7.3 Bahasa Pengarangan
7.3.1 Pengenalan kepada Bahasa Pengarangan
7.3.2 Fungsi Perisian Bahasa Pengarangan
7.3.3 Proses Pengarangan Multimedia
7.3.4 Metafora dan Paradigma Perisian Pengarangan

Penghasilan Prototaip dalam Pembangunan Perisian Multimedia

8.0 Pengenalan
8.1 Prototaip dalam Pembangunan Perisian Multimedia : Sepintas Lalu
8.2 Definisi Prototaip
8.3 Pembangunan Prototaip
8.4 Pendekatan dalam Pembangunan Prototaip
8.4.1 Pendekatan Penghujung Terbuka
8.4.2 Pendekatan Penghujung Tertutup
8.5 Teknik-teknik Pembangunan Prototaip
8.5.1 Pembangunan Prototaip Aras Rendah
8.5.2 Pembangunan Prototaip Aras Sederhana
8.5.3 Pembangunan Prototaip Aras Tinggi

Proses Pengujian dan Pendokumentasian dalam Pembangunan Perisian Multimedia

9.0 Pengenalan
9.1 Kepentingan Proses Pengujian dalam Pembangunan Perisian Multimedia
9.2 Pengujian dalam Pembangunan Perisian Multimedia
9.2.1 Pengujian Pembangunan
9.2.2 Pengujian Penerimaan
9.3 Jenis-jenis Pengujian
9.3.1 Ulasan Rakan
9.3.2 Pengujian Kumpulan Sasaran
9.3.3 Penghasilan Prototaip
9.3.4 Ujian Kepenggunaan
9.3.5 Pengujian Alfa
9.3.6 Pengujian Beta
9.4 Pendokumentasian dalam Pembangunan Perisian Multimedia

BAB 10
Proses Penilaian dalam Pembangunan Perisian Multimedia

10.0 Pengenalan
10.1 Proses Penilaian dalam Pendidikan
10.2 Konsep Asas Penilaian
10.3 Jenis-jenis Penilaian dalam Pembangunan Perisian Multimedia
10.3.1 Penilaian Formatif
10.3.2 Penilaian Sumatif
10.3.3 Penilaian Iluminatif
10.3.4 Penilaian Integratif
10.4 Kaedah Melaksanakan Proses Penilaian
10.4.1 Pemerhatian
10.4.2 Temubual
10.4.3 Soal selidik
10.5 Pemilihan Kaedah bagi Tujuan Penilaian
10.6 Panduan Menilai Perisian Multimedia Pendidikan
10.6.1 Panduan Menilai Perisian Aplikasi
10.6.2 Panduan Menilai Perisian Pendidikan

BAB 11
Penilaian Formatif dalam Pembangunan Perisian Multimedia

11.0 Pengenalan
11.1 Aktiviti Utama dalam Penilaian Formatif
11.2 Rekabentuk dan Pengendalian Penilaian Formatif
11.2.1 Penilaian Secara Individu
11.2.2 Penilaian Kumpulan Kecil
11.2.3 Penilaian Lapangan
11.3 Instrumen yang digunakan dalam Proses Penilaian
11.3.1 Ujian Pra
11.3.2 Kuiz
11.3.3 Soal Selidik
11.3.4 Latihan
11.3.5 Ujian Pos
11.4 Kaedah yang digunakan dalam Proses Penilaian Formatif
11.4.1 Pemanduan dalam Perisian
11.4.2 Pengambilan Bahagian oleh Pengguna
11.4.3 Kumpulan Fokus
11.4.4 Penilaian Pakar

BAB 12
Penilaian Sumatif dalam Pembangunan Perisian Multimedia

12.0 Pengenalan
12.1 Fasa-fasa Utama dalam Penilaian Sumatif
12.1.1 Fasa Penilaian Pakar dalam Penilaian Sumatif
12.1.2 Fasa Penilaian Lapangan dalam Penilaian Sumatif
12.2 Penilaian Sumatif dari Pelbagai Aspek
12.2.1 Rekabentuk Pengajaran
12.2.2 Strategi Pengajaran
12.2.3 Aspek Motivasi
12.2.4 Prinsip-prinsip Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran

BAB 13
Penyimpanan dan Penyebaran Perisian Multimedia

13.0 Pengenalan
13.1 Penyimpanan Perisian Multimedia
13.2 Penyebaran Perisian Multimedia
13.3 Kaedah dan Media Penyebaran
13.3.1 Cakera Liut
13.3.2 Cakera Padat
13.3.3 Cakera Boleh Ubah
13.3.4 Rangkaian Komputer
13.3.5 Kiosk

BAB 14
Isu-isu Hakcipta dalam Pembangunan Perisian Multimedia

14.0 Pengenalan
14.1 Cetak Rompak Dalam Industri Multimedia
14.2 Apakah Yang Dimaksudkan Dengan Hakcipta ?
14.2.1 Hak Ekonomi
14.2.2 Hak Moral
14.3 Undang-undang Hak Intelektual
14.3.1 Undang-undang Hakcipta
14.3.2 Undang-undang Paten
14.3.3 Undang-undang Tanda Perdagangan
14.3.4 Undang-undang Rahsia Perdagangan
14.4 Isu-Isu Pemilikan Hakcipta
14.4.1 Bilakah Anda Boleh Menggunakan Hasil Kerja Seseorang ?
14.4.2 Bagaimana Mendapatkan Kebenaran Hakcipta ?
14.5 Tanda dan Simbol Bagi Hakcipta

model addie assure

Pembangunan Perisian Multimedia : Satu Pendekatan Sistematik

Adakah anda merupakan seorang penerbit, pengurus projek, perekabentuk, pengaturcara, pendidik ataupun pelajar yang terlibat di dalam dunia pembangunan perisian multimedia ? Sekiranya ya, maka buku Pembangunan Perisian Multimedia : Satu Pendekatan Sistematik ini merupakan sebuah buku yang perlu anda miliki. Buku ini ditulis khususnya bagi memberikan penerangan yang menyeluruh kepada pembaca mengenai isu-isu utama yang perlu diberi perhatian dalam sesuatu proses pembangunan perisian multimedia.

Antara penekanan yang diutamakan antaranya ialah fasa-fasa serta proses kerja yang terbabit, model-model rekabentuk, pengurusan projek, pengurusan perbelanjaan, pembentukan kumpulan kerja, penghasilan dan pengumpulan media, proses pengaturcaraan dan pengarangan, pembinaan prototaip, proses pengujian dan penilaian, kaedah penyimpanan dan penyebaran media, isu hakcipta dan banyak lagi. Buku ini sesuai digunakan oleh sesiapa sahaja yang berminat untuk mendalami bidang pembangunan perisian multimedia tidak kira peringkat usia ataupun latarbelakang pendidikan.

model addie assure

Pembangunan Perisian Multimedia Berasaskan Proses Pembelajaran Berasaskan Masalah dalam Subjek Sains Komputer
Ibrahim Bin Ahmad
Baharuddin Bin Aris
Jamalludin Bin HarunPhotobucket
Fakulti Pendidikan, Universiti Teknologi MalaysiaPhotobucket
Pembelajaran Berasaskan Masalah (PBL) merupakan satu inovasi yang signifikan dalam proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran dalam bidang seperti perubatan, kejuruteraan, sains komputer dan undang-undang. Masalah dunia sebenar akan dikemukakan kepada pelajar di mana ianya akan menjadi pemandu utama ke arah pembelajaran pelajar. Proses pembelajaran menggunakan kaedah ini nampaknya menunjukkan hasil penyelidikan yang memberangsangkan mengikut para penyelidik yang telah menggunakannya. Proses ini juga telah cuba diterapkan dengan penggunaan komputer sebagai satu wadah untuk menjadikan proses pembelajaran lebih menarik dan signifikan. Beberapa model telah dicadangkan untuk membentuk satu proses yang kukuh ke arah pembangunan perisian multimedia berasaskan proses PBL ini. Ia turut mengaitkan ciri-ciri utama proses PBL dan teknik pembangunan perisian komputer. Proses penilaian formatif dan sumatif dalam mengumpul data kualitatif dan kuantitatif dijalankan untuk memastikan objektif yang ditetapkan akan dicapai. Kertas kerja ini bertujuan menerangkan proses pembangunan perisian multimedia berasaskan proses PBL dalam subjek sains komputer.
Ledakan Teknologi Maklumat dan Komunikasi (ICT) mula terasa bahangnya di pertengahan tahun 90-an apabila ICT mula mendapat tempat di hati rakyat Malaysia. Penawaran kursus-kursus jangka pendek dan panjang di peringkat sijil, diploma dan ijazah telah memberi laluan kepada bidang ini untuk terus bertapak di negara kita.
Dalam bidang pendidikan khususnya, penguasaan ICT di kalangan pelajar, guru dan pensyarah telah meningkat. Penguasaan guru dalam bidang ini bukan sekadar untuk menjadikan ianya sebagai alat dan bahan dalam proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran malah lebih jauh dari itu. Penawaran mata pelajaran ICT di peringkat sekolah memberi peluang kepada pelajar untuk menguasai kemahiran ini sejak di bangku sekolah lagi.
Mata pelajaran Teknologi Maklumat (IT) mula diperkenalkan oleh Kementerian Pendidikan sebagai mata pelajaran pilihan di sekolah menengah bermula pada penghujung tahun 1998. Bermula dengan pemilihan 15 buah sekolah sebagai percubaan pada tahun 1999, ianya menjadi 30 buah sekolah pada tahun berikutnya (Pusat Perkembangan Kurikulum, 2000). Salah satu daripada pentaksiran yang ditawarkan di dalam mata pelajaran pilihan tersebut ialah Sistem Komputer dan Aplikasinya.
Pendekatan yang sering digunakan untuk mengajar pelajar di sekolah mengenai IT ialah dengan menggunakan kaedah kelas dan tutorial. Setiap pelajar dibekalkan satu komputer untuk memastikan setiap pelajar mendapat kemudahan yang sama dalam masa pembelajaran berlangsung. Pelajar akan berpeluang menjelajah ke dalam program mengikut modul yang telah ditetapkan.
Sebagai contoh, kajian yang dijalankan oleh Baharuddin Aris (2001) mengenai penggunaan ICT untuk belajar ICT mendapati bahawa pelajar mampu mempertingkatkan pengetahuan dan kemahiran mereka dalam bidang berkenaan. Justeru itu kajian ini berusaha untuk menerangkan proses pembangunan perisian multimedia yang akan digunakan oleh para pelajar bagi meningkatkan pengetahuan dan kemahiran mereka mengenai tajuk “Sistem Komputer dan Aplikasinya’ dengan mengaitkan pendekatan Pembelajaran Berasaskan Masalah (PBL).
Latarbelakang masalah
PBL merupakan satu proses pembelajaran di mana masalah merupakan pemandu utama ke arah pembelajaran tersebut. Boud dan Tamblyn (1980) mendefinisikan PBL sebagai
...the learning which result from the process of working towards the understanding of, or resolution of, a problem.
Margetson (1991) pula menganggap PBL sebagai konsep pengetahuan, pemahaman dan pendidikan secara mendalam berbeza daripada kebanyakan konsep yang terletak di bawah pembelajaran berasaskan mata pelajaran.
Dengan menggunakan pendekatan PBL ini, pelajar akan bekerja secara koperatif dalam kumpulan untuk menyelesaikan masalah sebenar dan yang paling penting membina kemahiran untuk menjadi pelajar yang boleh belajar secara kendiri (Hamizer, Baharuddin & Mohamad, 2003). Pelajar akan membina kebolehan berfikir secara kritis secara berterusan berkaitan dengan idea yang dihasilkan serta apa yang akan dilakukan dengan maklumat yang diterima. (Gallagher, 1997)
Di dalam melaksanakan proses pembelajaran PBL ini, Bridges (1992) dan Charlin (1998) telah menggariskan beberapa ciri-ciri utama yang perlu ada di dalamnya seperti berikut:
• Pembelajaran berpusat atau bermula dengan masalah.
• Masalah yang digunakan merupakan masalah dunia sebenar yang mungkin akan dihadapi oleh pelajar dalam kerjaya profesional mereka di masa hadapan ( Ill Structured Problem)
• Pengetahuan yang diharapkan dicapai oleh pelajar semasa proses pembelajaran disusun berdasarkan masalah dan bukannya disiplin.
• Para pelajar adalah bertanggungjawab terhadap proses pembelajaran mereka sendiri.
• Pelajar akan bersifat aktif dengan pemprosesan maklumat.
• Pengetahuan sedia ada akan diaktifkan serta menyokong kepada pembangunan pengetahuan yang baru.
• Pengetahuan akan diperolehi dalam konteks yang bermakna.
• Pelajar berpeluang untuk meningkatkan serta mengorganisasikan pengetahuan.
• Kebanyakan pembelajaran berlaku dalam kumpulan kecil berbanding menerusi kaedah perkuliahan.
Beberapa kajian telah menunjukkan bahawa penggunaan proses pembelajaran menggunakan kaedah PBL dapat memberikan hasil yang cukup memberangsangkan. Kajian oleh Cawley (1988) terhadap pelajar-pelajarnya dalam bidang kejuruteraan mekanikal mendapati bilangan pelajar yang ingin mengikuti pendekatan ini bertambah setiap sessi kemasukan apabila mereka diberikan pilihan untuk mengikutinya.
Penyelidikan ke atas pekerja sosial yang telah dijalankan oleh Heycox & Bolzan (1990) ke atas pekerja-pekerja berbangsa Vietnam (yang tidak fasih berbahasa Inggeris). Mereka mendapati kebanyakan daripada pekerja sosial tersebut mudah mendapat kemahiran yang dipelajari dengan menggunakan pendekatan PBL ini.
Banyak lagi kajian-kajian lain yang telah dijalankan oleh penyelidik dalam pelbagai bidang termasuklah perubatan, undang-undang, pengurusan dan ekonomi. Dalam bidang pendidikan khususnya sains komputer (Hoffman dan Ritchie, 1997) tidak terdapat artikel yang diterbitkan tetapi selepas daripada itu, terdapat beberapa artikel yang dilihat mula menjalankan kajian yang berkaitan seperti “Producing Interactive Multimedia Courseware for Information technology in Education : An Initiative at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia” oleh Baharuddin Aris et al. (1998) dan “Integrating Computers into the Problem-Solving Process” oleh Lowther & Morrison (2003).
Ini menujukkan bahawa kajian harus dipertingkatkan untuk menentukan kesesuaian pendekatan PBL ini dijalankan dalam bidang pendidikan sains komputer.
Pernyataan Masalah
Proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran memerlukan pelbagai kaedah dan pendekatan digunakan. Kebanyakan guru biasanya menyampaikan pengetahuan berasaskan isi kandungan dan berpusatkan pengajaran itu sendiri. Matlamat guru hanyalah ke arah menyediakan pelajar untuk menduduki peperiksaan pada setiap hujung tahun. Apa yang terjadi adalah proses pembelajaran hanya berlaku secara dasar sahaja. Tidak mementingkan pemahaman pelajar samada benar-benar menguasai kemahiran atu pun tidak. Adakalanya setiap konsep yang disampaikan tidak jelas dan berada jauh di luar konteks sebenar.
Sehubungan dengan itu, pelajar haruslah dilatih dengan kemahiran berfikir pada peringkat yang lebih tinggi. Pelajar harus dilatih dengan kemahiran berfikir secara kritikal, menganalisa maklumat serta mengsistesiskan maklumat bagi menyelesaikan masalah dalam pelbagai konteks. Oleh itu, kajian harus dijalankan untuk melihat sejauh manakah penggunaan perisian mutlimedia berasaskan PBL mampu mempertingkatkan pengetahuan dan kemahiran pelajar mengenai sistem komputer dan aplikasinya.
Kerangka Teori
Model pembelajaran kognitif-konstruktivis dipilih untuk menjadi tunggak utama dalam kajian ini. Menyelesaikan masalah yang melibatkan peranan kognitif dalam memproses maklumat yang diperolehi berdasarkan masalah yang diberikan. Pemahaman pelajar terhadap masalah yang dikemukakan merupakan aktiviti kognitif di mana pelajar perlu bersikap aktif untuk berfikir dan ini adalah hasil sumbangan daripada pengalaman atau pengetahuan sedia ada pelajar.
Selain itu, persekitaran pembelajaran secara konstraktivis akan diambilkira dalam penghasilan perisian multimedia interaktif. Ini disebabkan pembelajaran berasaskan komputer dalam persekiataran pembelajaran konstruktivis menyokong pembelajaran secara aktif, menyokong pembinaan pengetahuan dan menyokong kaedah pembelajaran melalui pengetahuan (Jonassen, 1994)
Di dalam merekabentuk sesuatu perisian dengan menggunakan teori konstruktif, terdapat prinsip tertentu yang perlu diikuti dan kebanyakan prinsip tersebut menepati dengan ciri-ciri utama PBL. Antaranya pengajaran di dalam perisian multimedia mestilah berdasarkan kepada pengalaman pelajar serta menyediakan persekitaran yang melahirkan suasana ingin belajar. Selain itu perisian haruslah mempunyai perspektif yang pelbagai serta menggunakan aktiviti autentik serta berpusatkan kepada pelajar dan menggalakkan strategi penemuan di dalamnya. Ini perlu dilakukan kerana dibimbangi pelajar akan sesat (terkeluar dari konteks yang ingin dikuasai) jika tiada panduan diberikan.
Mengikut kajian lepas, proses pembelajaran PBL boleh dibantu menerusi penggunaan komputer tetapi apa yang perlu diberikan perhatian terhadap proses pembangunan perisian tersbeut ialah ciri-ciri utama yang terdapat di dalam PBL dan juga perisian mutlimedia tersebut.
Gibson & Albion (1998) telah mencadangkan agar proses merekabentuk perisian multimedia yang diintegerasikan dengan pembelajaran PBL harus mengambilkira perkara-perkara berikut berasaskan kepada ciri-ciri utama PBL yang diutarakan oleh Bridges (1992)
• fidelity
• represtational richness
• time and timeliness
• individualisastion
• assessment
• efficiency
• increased power of agency
Di samping itu juga, Lowther & Marrison (2003) mencadangkan 10 langkah pembangunan perisian multimedia berasaskan pembelajaran PBL juga perlu diberikan perhatian :
• Penetapan objektif yang lebih khusus
• Menyesuaikan objektif dengan fungsi komputer
• Menetapkan masalah dengan lebih khusus
• Memanipulasi data
• Mempersembahkan hasil dari proses pembelajaran
• Menjalankan objektif di komputer
• Aktiviti sebelum penggunaan komputer
• Aktiviti selepas penggunaan komputer
• Penilaian
Model sistem rekabentuk pengajaraan ADDIE (Rossett, 1986) digunakan untuk membangunkan perisian multimedia ini. Model ini digunakan berasaskan kepada singkatan dari perkataan yang bermaksud Anaylize (analisa), Design (merekabentuk), Development (pembangunan), Implementation (perlaksanaan) dan Evaluation (penilaian). Model ini dipilih kerana model ini menjadi asas kepada model-model reka bentuk yang lain. Elemen-elemen
yang hampir sama terdapat dalam kebanyakan model rekabentuk yang lain seperti Model ASSURE dan Model Dick and Carey.
Kajian pra pembangunan 1. penentuan gaya pembelajaran
2. mengetahui tahu tahap pengetahuan pelajar dalam bidang IT khususnya bagi pentaksiran “Sistem Komputer dan Aplikasinya”
kognitif –konstruktivis : Model Pembangunan PBL-IMM
Reality Checking
Rajah 1: Kerangka Teori
Metadologi Kajian
Penyelidikan ini melibatkan 3 fasa utama. Fasa pertama melibatkan pengumpulan maklumat tentang gaya pembelajaran pelajar serta melihat tahap pengetahuan pelajar mengenai bidang sistem komputer tersebut. Proses mengenalpasti gaya pembelajaran yang digunakan adalah yang dipelopori oleh Honey dan Mumford (1986)
Fasa kedua pula melibatkan peringkat merekabentuk dan pembangunan perisian multimedia.
Fasa ketiga pula adalah untuk menilai keberkesanan hasil penggunaan perisian multimedia interaktif yang dibangunkan berasaskan pembelajaran PBL. Dalam fasa ini pengkaji menggunakan kaedah kualitatif dan kuantitatif bagi melihat sejauh manakah kesan pembelajaran PBL tersebut menggunakan perisian multimedia.
Keberkesanan perisian multimedia yang dibangunkan itu juga boleh dilihat menerusi interaksi pelajar semasa menggunakan perisian ini. Pemerhatian akan dijalankan melalui senarai semak yang disediakan semasa pelajar menggunakan perisian itu.
Sehingga kini masih lagi kurang pembangunan perisian mutlimedia interaktif berasaskan Pembelajaran Berasaskan Masalah (PBL) serta penyelidikan terhadap keberkesanannya di Malaysia. Penggunaan perisian multimedia berasaskan PBL ini dapat meningkatkan pemahaman pelajar terhadap mata pelajaran sains komputer amnya dan Sistem Komputer khasnya..
________, (2000). Use of Multimedia for Problem Based Learning in Computer Science ; The Munics Learning Enviroment. IFIP Working Group 3.2 on Computer in University Education and IFIP Working Group 3.6 on Distance Learning.
Baharuddin Aris & Henry Ellington (2000). A Practical Guide To Instructional Design. Skudai, Penerbit UTM.
Baharuddin Aris (2001). Universiti Teknologi Malaysia’s Teacher Education Students Learning About ICT Using ICT. Innotech Journal, Vol. 25, No. 2, July to December.
Baharuddin Aris, Mohamad Bilal Ali, Jamalludin Harun & Zaidatun Tasir (2001). Sistem Komputer & Aplikasinya. Kuala Lumpur; Venton Publishing.
Baharuddin Aris, Mohd Salleh Abu & Mohamad Bilal Ali (2001). Learning About Information Technology in Education Using Multimedia. VirTEC Journal, Vol. 1, No. 1.
Baharuddin Aris, Mohd Salleh Abu, Ellington, H. I., & Morgana (1998). Producing Interactive Multimedia Courseware For Information Technology in Education : An Initiative at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Journal of Instruction Delivery Systems. Vol 12, No 3, Summer 1998.
Baharuddin Aris, Rio Sumarni Shariffudin & S. Manimegalai (2002). Rekabentuk Perisian Multimedia. Skudai, Penerbit UTM
Boud, D., & Fletti, G.(1991). The Challenge of Problem-Based Learning. New York; St Martin’s Press.
Gibson, I. W., & Albion, P. R. (1997). Designing Multimedia Materials Using A Problem-Based Learning Design. Research and development in Problem-Based Learning (Vol. 4) Australian Problem Based Learning Network.
Gibson, I. W., & Albion, P. R. (1998). Interactive Multimedia and problem-Based Learning : Challenges for Instructional Design. Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE)
Gibson, I. W., & Albion, P.R. (1997). CD-ROM Based Hypermedia and Problem Based Learning for the Pre-service and Profesional Development of Teachers. In J. Conway, r. Fisher, l Sherdan-Burns & G. Ryan (Eds).
Marrison, D. L., & Lowther, G. R. (2003). Integrating Computers into the Problem-Solving Process. Problem-Based Learning in the Information Age. 33- 38 San Farncisco. Jossey-Bass
Nulden, U. (1998) PIE- Problem-Based Learning, Interactive Multimeda and Experimental Learning. Sweden; Golbeg University

addie assure

12. Kesedaran Dan Kesanggupan Penggunaan Teknologi Maklumat Dan Komunikasi (ICT) Dalam Pengurusan Pendidikan di Malaysia
(Awareness and Willingness of Using Information And Communication Technology (ICT) In Educational Aministration in Malaysia)
Dr Foo Say Fooi
Universiti Putra Malaysia
Chan Yuen Fook
Institut Aminuddin Baki, Malaysia
Alaf baru akan menyaksikan transformasi masyarakat melalui saingan hebat global serta kuasa teknologi maklumat dan komunikasi (ICT). Perkembangan ini mempunyai banyak implikasi kepada pendidikan dan pengurusan pendidikan dalam sekolah bestari atau sekolah yang akan menjadi sekolah bestari dalam alaf yang baru ini. Kemahiran teknologi komputer menjadi satu kemestian bagi semua pendidik khususnya para pemimpin dan pengurus pendidikan. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk meninjau kesedaran pengetua dan guru besar terhadap kewujudan ICT. Penyelidik juga berminat untuk melihat kesanggupan para pentadbir sekolah untuk menggunakan ICT dalam proses pembelajaran pelajar dan pengurusan pendidikan di sekolah. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan bahawa kesedaran pengetua dan guru besar terhadap kewujudan ICT masih berada pada tahap yang perlu dipertingkatkan. Kesedaran ini didapati menerima kesan dari kemudahan makmal komputer dan sistem jaringan yang ada di sekolah mereka. Responden kajian menunjukkan kesanggupan yang tinggi untuk mengguna ICT dalam aspek latihan, sistem jaringan dan pembelajaran di bilik darjah.

[The new millennium will witness the transformation of the society through a keen global competition and the effect of information technology and communication (ICT). This development has immense implication on education and educational administration in smart schools or smart schools to be. Computer technology competency is a must for all educationists especially educational administrators. The objective of this study is to investigate the awareness of school administrators towards the existence of ICT. This paper also looks at the willingness of school administrators in using ICT in students’ learning processes and school administration. The findings indicate that the awareness of school administrators on the existence of ICT is still lacking. The level of awareness is influenced by the existence of computer labs and networking system in the schools they served. The respondents have shown a keen willingness to adopt ICT in areas such as training, networking and learning in the classrooms.]

penggunaan teknologi dalam pendidikan

Ramsden 1993; Trigwel, Prosser, & Lyons 1997:
“Proses bekerja bersama pelajar untuk membantu mereka berkebolehan dan berkemungkinan untuk belajar.”

Ramsden (1988):
“Belajar atau pembelajaran di sekolah seharusnya merupakan satu pergerakan ke arah pembentukan insan yang berupaya menyelesaikan persoalan yang kompleks, mengiktiraf kuasa dan keelokan konsep-konsep sesuatu bidang pelajar, dan menggunakan ilmu yang dipelajari di dalam kelas dalam menyelesaikan masalah di luar kelas.”
PhotobucketPhotobucketPenggunaan PBBK(Pembelajaran Bahasa Berbantukan Komputer) dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran Bahasa Arab sebagai bahasa asing: Satu tinjauan awal.
Ashinida Aladdin, and Afendi Hamat, and Mohd. Shabri Yusof, (2004) Penggunaan PBBK(Pembelajaran Bahasa Berbantukan Komputer) dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran Bahasa Arab sebagai bahasa asing: Satu tinjauan awal. GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies, 4 (1). 16 p.. ISSN 1675-8021

Full text not available from this repository.

Official URL: http://www.fpbahasa.ukm.my/linguistics/Gema/GemaVol4.1.2004No1.pdf

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Fakulti Sains Sosial dan Kemanusiaan. Pusat Pengajian Bahasa dan Linguistik
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Fakulti Sains Sosial dan Kemanusiaan. Pusat Pengajian Bahasa dan Linguistik
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Fakulti Sains Sosial dan Kemanusiaan. Pusat Pengajian Bahasa dan Linguistik

Memandang kepada ledakan teknologi maklumat yang semakin pesat, penggunaan komputer telah terbukti mempunyai potensi yang cukup luas dan dinamik dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran bahasa. Kajian penggunaan komputer dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran bahasa Arab yang dijalankan ini, adalah satu kajian awal yang respondennya terdiri daripada 40 orang guru bahasa Arab dari sekolah agama berasrama penuh di Malaysia iaitu Kolej Islam Sultan Alam Shah, Kelang, Sekolah Menengah Agama Persekutuan, Kajang dan Sekolah Menengah Agama Persekutuan, Labu. Kajian dikendalikan menggunakan tinjauan.dan bagi tujuan pengumpulan data, borang soal-selidik telah diedarkan kepada subjek kajian yang dipilih dan seterusnya data ini dianalisis secara deskriptif. Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk mengetahui skop penggunaan komputer di kalangan guru dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran bahasa Arab di sekolah yang dipilih di atas. Kajian ini juga bertujuan untuk mendapatkan maklum balas daripada guru-guru yang mengajar bahasa Arab tentang persepsi, tahap kesediaan dan peranan mereka dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran bahasa Arab berbantukan komputer. Hasil kajian yang diperolehi menunjukkan bahawa guru mempunyai persepsi yang sangat baik terhadap PBBK. Para guru juga telah menunjukkan kesediaan yang tinggi untuk menghadiri apa jua bentuk latihan yang berkaitan dengan PBBK bagi memastikan agar ianya dapat berjalan dengan lancar dan jayanya. Di bahagian akhir, pengkaji telah menyarankan beberapa cadangan untuk penggunaan PBBK dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran bahasa Arab berdasarkan dapatan kajian.

Item Type: Journal
Subjects: P Language and Literature
ID Code: 1911

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